Milan is the second largest city in Italy and the capital city of the Lombardy region. The city has a population of about 1.3 million (reaching 2 million during working hours), while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza, has a population of over 4 million spread over 1 980 km. Over five million trips are made daily in Milan, with more than 1 million people entering the city and roughly 250 000 people leaving it. The Milan Urban Mobility Plan (PUM), adopted in 2001, set itself the objectives of reducing traffic congestion, increasing transport safety, improving quality of service, stimulating technological innovation, reducing environmental impacts, and rationalizing freight transport. The goals are being achieved through measures such as promoting sustainable mobility (walking, cycling, public transport, "clean” cars), introducing flexible transport systems (on-demand buses, car sharing, bike sharing, etc.) and road user charging. Between 2008 and 2011, a charge, called the ECOPASS, was applied to polluting vehicles entering a central area named "Cerchia dei Bastioni”. In 2012, the pollution charge was changed to a congestion charge and it is applied to the same area, renamed "Area C”. Milan views automated systems as playing a useful role in the wider public transport mix and is considering which areas are most suited to such a system.