What are automated systems?
Automated Road Passenger Transport systems (also known as CTS - Cybernetic Transport Systems) are public transport systems based on the use of a fleet of communication-enabled cybercars – road vehicles with automated driving capabilities.
Automated systems are ideally suited to supplement the existing mass public transport system with collective, semi-collective and personal on-demand and shuttle services. When demand is low or pick-up points are far apart, they are much more effective than conventional public mass transport systems. Cybercars are operated automatically with state-of-the-art obstacle-avoidance technology in order to run on existing infrastructure among pedestrians, cyclists and road vehicles in low-density areas.
The automated systems can be divided into the following sub-systems, with their own requirements:
: The aim of the vehicle is to transport in a safe, secure and comfortable way the passengers on a particular network from the station of origin to their destination station. There are several key general requirements for the vehicles aiming at the safety of the passengers and the other road users, including:
On-board intelligence must be divided into two independent intelligence levels that monitor each other.
Fleet and infrastructure supervision and management system (FISM) requirements
- Obstacle detection must be considered in the design of the vehicle: this enables moving and unmoving obstacles above a given size to be detected.
- Mechanical brakes (allowing the vehicle to stop rapidly in any circumstances) must be applied when there is no power.
: The FISM system is an automated system that assigns missions to each individual vehicle according to the demand and coordinates the vehicles on the infrastructure.
: The role of the infrastructure in the system is to compensate the vehicle’s (lack of) performance in order to guarantee an adequate level of safety. The first general requirement concerns segregation in relation to motor vehicles. Any intersection with pedestrian crossings and with roads carrying manual vehicle traffic must be adequately managed through infrastructure, in order to guarantee an adequate level of safety. The infrastructure should have a reliable communication system.
The end-user information system
: The user information system (UI) is intended for communication between the end users and the CTS during normal operations and emergencies. The UI system allows users to enter their trip request and get information about the current status of the system.
Operator information system
: The operator information system allows a human operator to supervise the operation of each subsystem. The operator information system allows the operator to supervise the proper operation of the CTS and to take appropriate actions in case of failures or changes in the configuration.